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The AAPS journal

Safety and biocompatibility of carbohydrate-functionalized polyanhydride nanoparticles.


PMID 25421457

Abstract

Carbohydrate functionalization of nanoparticles allows for targeting of C-type lectin receptors. This family of pattern recognition receptors expressed on innate immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, can be used to modulate immune responses. In this work, the in vivo safety profile of carbohydrate-functionalized polyanhydride nanoparticles was analyzed following parenteral and intranasal administration in mice. Polyanhydride nanoparticles based on 1,6-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane and 1,8-bis-(p-carboxyphenoxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane were used. Nanoparticle functionalization with di-mannose (specifically carboxymethyl-α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-D-mannopyranoside), galactose (specifically carboxymethyl-β-galactoside), or glycolic acid induced no adverse effects after administration based on histopathological evaluation of liver, kidneys, and lungs. Regardless of the polymer formulation, there was no evidence of hepatic or renal damage or dysfunction observed in serum or urine samples. The histological profile of cellular infiltration and the cellular distribution and kinetics in the lungs of mice administered with nanoparticle treatments followed similar behavior as that observed in the lungs of animals administered with saline. Cytokine and chemokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid indicated surface chemistry dependence on modest secretion of IL-6, IP-10, and MCP-1; however, there was no evidence of any deleterious histopathological changes. Based on these analyses, carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles are safe for in vivo applications. These results provide foundational information towards the evaluation of the capabilities of these surface-modified nanoparticles as vaccine delivery formulations.

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