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Faraday discussions

Single layer graphene as an electrochemical platform.


PMID 25426728

Abstract

Over the past decade, there has been a great deal of interest in graphene with regards to its electrochemical behavior. Previous studies have focused on understanding fundamental processes such as charge transfer and molecular transport at the graphene-electrolyte interface as well as on applications of graphene in electronic, optical, and mechanical systems. We present illustrative examples of large area, single layer graphene platforms for applications such as optical and sensing devices as well as microfluidic systems. Three examples of graphene modified with thin polymer films are discussed. We have explored the use of graphene as an electrochemical platform for surface-generated electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) using poly-[Ru(v-bpy)3](2+), where v-bpy is 4-vinyl, 4'-methyl 2,2'-bipyridine, as a model system. We found that while graphene can sustain ECL conditions, there was film degradation during ECL, as demonstrated by a decrease in ECL intensity upon potential cycling even in the presence of a graphene coating ("graphene blanket"). Using poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), we demonstrate a facile method of fabricating electrochromic electrodes from large area graphene. The oxidation of NADH at graphene was catalyzed using an electrodeposited layer of 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde as an effective redox mediator. In addition, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a microfluidic device based on a solution-gated field effect transistor which was able to detect changes of 60 mV per pH unit change in an inverted cell design. On the other hand, a 29 mV shift in the Dirac point per unit pH change was measured with our microfluidic devices, and a ca. 10% FET conductance change was measured when we continuously changed the pH in solution from 6.91 to 7.64 in the microfluidic channel, demonstrating local microfluidic pH sensing (albeit non-Nerstian) in real time.

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37520
3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde, purum, ≥97.0% (HPLC)
C7H6O3