EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Microbes and infection

Involvement of Nod2 in the innate immune response elicited by malarial pigment hemozoin.


PMID 25462568

Abstract

In malaria, the evidence concerning the nucleotide-binding, oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 (NOD2) receptor is fragmented and the stimuli that might activate NOD2 are not well characterized. We investigated the role of NOD2 inxa0vitro in the response of macrophages to Plasmodium falciparum products. Immortalized or primary bone marrow derived macrophages from wild type C57Bl/6 mice, or knockout mice for NOD2 or its adaptor proteins, were either primed with interferon gamma or left untreated, and stimulated with parasite products. Both lysates of infected erythrocytes or hemozoin induced higher levels of nitric oxide in primed than in unprimed wild type macrophages. When stimulated with hemozoin, primed macrophages knockout for NOD2, or for its adaptor proteins, produced significantly lower nitric oxide levels compared to wild type cells. Differently from hemozoin, the use of β-hematin (synthetic hemozoin) as stimulus showed that NOD2 is dispensable. Furthermore, the production of inflammatory cytokines by wild type cells treated with hemozoin was not dependent on NOD2. These data indicate that parasite components present in the hemozoin, differently from β-hematin, induce the production of nitric oxide through the activation of NOD2, whereas the production of inflammatory cytokines, like TNF-α or MIP-2 (CXCL2), seems to be NOD2 independent.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

42251
Apigenin Proteus mirabilis, analytical standard
C15H10O5
01760595
Apigenin Proteus mirabilis, primary pharmaceutical reference standard
C15H10O5
A3145
Apigenin Proteus mirabilis, ≥97% (TLC), from parsley, powder
C15H10O5
10798
Apigenin Proteus mirabilis, ≥95.0% (HPLC)
C15H10O5
A4043
Azure B, certified by the Biological Stain Commission
C15H16ClN3S
227935
Azure B, prepared by direct synthesis
C15H16ClN3S
17850
Ciprofloxacin, ≥98.0% (HPLC)
C17H18FN3O3
PHR1167
Ciprofloxacin, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
C17H18FN3O3
Y0000198
Ciprofloxacin, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C17H18FN3O3
M0240000
Medronic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
CH6O6P2
77515
Methylene Blue solution, for microscopy
C16H18ClN3S
50484
Methylene Blue solution, for microbiology
C16H18ClN3S
66725
Methylene Blue solution alkaline according to Loeffler, according to Loeffler
C16H18ClN3S
M9508
Methylenediphosphonic acid, ≥99%
CH6O6P2
64255
Methylenediphosphonic acid, for molecular studies & mass spectrometry
CH6O6P2
N9125
N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, ≥98%
C12H14N2 · 2HCl
33461
N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, for determination of sulfonamide and nitrite, ACS reagent, ≥98%
C12H14N2 · 2HCl
70721
N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, purum, ACS reagent, ≥97.0% (calc. based on dry substance, AT)
C12H14N2 · 2HCl
222488
N-(1-Naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, ACS reagent, >98%
C12H14N2 · 2HCl
S9251
Sulfanilamide, ≥99%
C6H8N2O2S
46874
Sulfanilamide, VETRANAL, analytical standard
C6H8N2O2S
1632004
Sulfanilamide, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
C6H8N2O2S
33626
Sulfanilamide, puriss. p.a., ≥99% (calc. to the dried substance)
C6H8N2O2S
S2151000
Sulfanilamide, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
C6H8N2O2S
PHR1093
Sulfanilamide melting point standard, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
C6H8N2O2S
1633007
Sulfanilamide Melting Point Standard, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
C6H8N2O2S