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Phytochemistry

Glycosidase inhibitors from the roots of Glyphaea brevis.


PMID 25468536

Abstract

Ten phenylalkyl-substituted iminosugars (1-10) and a cinnamic acid derived glucoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Glyphaea brevis (Malvaceae). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analysis, as well as by HR-ESIMS. Compounds 1-10 retain an unprecedented structure composed of an iminosugar-like core identified as 1-deoxyfuconojirimycin in glyphaeaside A1-A4 (1, 2, 5, 6), 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin in glyphaeaside B1-B5 (3, 4, 7-9) or 1-deoxynojirimycin in glyphaeaside C (10), substituted by a β-d-glucopyranose in compounds 2, 4, 6 and 9. These compounds feature a di-, tri- or tetra-hydroxylated nine-carbon chain at the pseudo-anomeric position, substituted by a terminal phenyl group. All alkyl C-iminosugars displayed potent and selective inhibition towards β-glucosidase with IC50 values ranging from 0.15 to 68μM. Compound 10 with an 1-deoxynojirimycin backbone was the most active and was found to act as a competitive inhibitor with Ki=31nM, therefore emerging as one of the most potent inhibitor of β-glucosidase reported to date. Inhibition of β-mannosidase was observed with compounds 1, 3, 7 and 10, but only weak inhibition could be detected with the alkyl-C-iminosugars on the other tested glycosidases (α-glucosidase, α-fucosidase, α- and β-galactosidase).