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The Journal of infectious diseases

Association of Cytokines With Exosomes in the Plasma of HIV-1-Seropositive Individuals.


PMID 25512626

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and viremic individuals exhibit elevated levels of plasma cytokines. Here we show that most cytokines are not in free form but appear associated with exosomes that are distinct from virions. Purified exosomes were analyzed to determine the levels of 21 cytokines and chemokines and compared with exosome-depleted plasma. Most cytokines were markedly enriched in exosomes from HIV-positive individuals relative to negative controls and to plasma. Moreover, exposure of naive peripheral blood mononuclear cells to exosomes purified from HIV-positive patients induced CD38 expression on naive and central memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, probably contributing to inflammation and viral propagation via bystander cell activation.