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The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease

Cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis screening and isoniazid treatment in the TB/HIV in Rio (THRio) Study.


PMID 25517809

Abstract

To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis (TB) screening and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We used decision analysis, populated by data from a cluster-randomized trial, to project the costs (in 2010 USD) and effectiveness (in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs] averted) of training health care workers to implement the tuberculin skin test (TST), followed by IPT for TST-positive patients with no evidence of active TB. This intervention was compared to a baseline of usual care. We used time horizons of 1 year for the intervention and 20 years for disease outcomes, with all future DALYs and medical costs discounted at 3% per year. Providing this intervention to 100 people would avert 1.14 discounted DALYs (1.57 undiscounted DALYs). The median estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $2273 (IQR $1779-$3135) per DALY averted, less than Brazil's 2010 per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of $11,700. Results were most sensitive to the cost of providing the training. Training health care workers to screen HIV-infected adults with TST and provide IPT to those with latent tuberculous infection can be considered cost-effective relative to the Brazilian GDP per capita.

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