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Journal of virology

Human coagulation factor X-adenovirus type 5 complexes poorly stimulate an innate immune response in human mononuclear phagocytes.


PMID 25540380

Abstract

One of the first lines of host defense against many viruses in vertebrates is the innate immune system, which detects pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) using pathogen recognition receptors (PRR). The dynamic interactions between pathogens and hosts create, in some cases, species-specific relationships. Recently, it was shown that murine factor X (mFX)-armored human adenovirus (HAd) stimulated a mFX-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-associated response in mouse macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Given the importance of studies using animals to better understand host-pathogen interactions, we asked if human FX (hFX)-armored HAd type 5 (HAd5) was capable of activating innate immune sensors in primary human mononuclear phagocytes. To this end, we assayed human mononuclear phagocytes for their ability to be stimulated by hFX-armored HAd5 via a TLR/NF-κB pathway, in particular, a TLR4 pathway. In our hands, we found no significant interaction, activation, or maturation of human mononuclear phagocytes caused by the presence of hFX-armored HAd5. Animals, and mice in particular, are often used as informative and powerful surrogates for how pathogens interact with natural host systems. When possible, extended and targeted studies in the natural host can then be performed. Our data will help us understand the differences in preclinical testing in mice and clinical use in humans in order to improve treatment for HAd diseases and Ad vector effectiveness.