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Acta biomaterialia

Microstructure, mechanical properties, castability and in vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys developed for dental applications.


PMID 25595472

Abstract

In this study, the microstructure, mechanical properties, castability, electrochemical behaviors, cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of Ti-Bi alloys with pure Ti as control were systematically investigated to assess their potential applications in the dental field. The experimental results showed that, except for the Ti-20Bi alloy, the microstructure of all other Ti-Bi alloys exhibit single α-Ti phase, while Ti-20Bi alloy is consisted of mainly α-Ti phase and a small amount of BiTi2 and BiTi3 phases. The tensile strength, hardness and wear resistance of Ti-Bi alloys were demonstrated to be improved monotonically with the increase of Bi content. The castability test showed that Ti-2Bi alloy increased the castability of pure Ti by 11.7%. The studied Ti-Bi alloys showed better corrosion resistance than pure Ti in both AS (artificial saliva) and ASFL (AS containing 0.2% NaF and 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. The concentrations of both Ti ion and Bi ion released from Ti-Bi alloys are extremely low in AS, ASF (AS containing 0.2% NaF) and ASL (AS containing 0.3% lactic acid) solutions. However, in ASFL solution, a large number of Ti and Bi ions are released. In addition, Ti-Bi alloys produced no significant deleterious effect to L929 cells and MG63 cells, similar to pure Ti, indicating a good in vitro biocompatibility. Besides, both L929 and MG63 cells perform excellent cell adhesion ability on Ti-Bi alloys. The hemolysis test exhibited that Ti-Bi alloys have an ultra-low hemolysis percentage below 1% and are considered nonhemolytic. To sum up, the Ti-2Bi alloy exhibits the optimal comprehensive performance and has great potential for dental applications.