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Journal of neuroscience research

Comparison of the effects of human dental pulp stem cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on ischemic human astrocytes in vitro.


PMID 25663284

Abstract

This study assesses the cytoprotective effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and conditioned medium from hDPSCs (CM-hDPSCs) on ischemic human astrocytes (hAs) in vitro compared with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Ischemia of hAs was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). CM-hDPSCs and hMSCs were collected after 48 hr of culture. Cell death was determined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthialzol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cellular ATP assays. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and musashi-1 as markers of reactive astrogliosis was examined with immunochemical staining. mRNA expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were analyzed by RT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. OGD increased cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner and decreased cellular ATP content concomitantly in hAs. Pretreatment and posttreatment with hDPSCs were associated with greater recovery from OGD-induced cytotoxicity in hAs compared with hMSCs. Similarly, CM-hDPSCs had a greater effect on OGD-induced cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner. Pre- and posttreatment with CM-hDPSCs or CM-hMSCs attenuated OGD-induced GFAP, nestin, and musashi-1 expression in hAs. Furthermore, treatment of cells with CM-hDPSCs and hMSCs blocked OGD-induced ROS production and interleukin-1ß upregulation. This study demonstrates for the first time that hDPSCs and CM-hDPSCs confer superior cytoprotection against cell death in an in vitro OGD model compared with hMSCs as shown by cell viability assay. Reactive gliosis, ROS production, and inflammatory mediators might contribute to this protective effect. Therefore, hDPSCs could represent an alternative source of cell therapy for ischemic stroke.