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Pediatric research

Altered lipid subfraction profile and impaired antioxidant defense of high-density lipoprotein in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.


PMID 25668223

Abstract

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disease caused by biallelic mutation in the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) reductase gene. High oxidizability of 7DHC and the appearance of small-sized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions indicate increased endogenous oxidative stress that is counterbalanced by natural antioxidant defense mechanisms including the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase-1 (PON1) enzyme. PON1 prevents lipoproteins from oxidative modifications; however, PON1 activity and the distribution of lipoprotein subfractions have not been studied in SLOS. 7DHC levels and PON1 arylesterase activities were measured spectrophotometrically in 11 SLOS patients and 10 healthy children. Lipoprotein subfractions were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Compared to controls, there was a shift towards the small-dense LDL subfraction and the large HDL subfraction in SLOS. PON1 arylesterase activity was significantly decreased in SLOS patients and correlated negatively with the proportion of small-dense LDL subfraction and the proportion of large HDL subfraction. Significant positive correlations were detected between PON1 arylesterase activity and the ratios of intermediate and small HDL subfractions. Decreased PON1 activity and the deleterious shift in the distribution of lipoprotein subfractions may contribute to the impaired antioxidant status observed in SLOS. Monitoring of serum PON1 arylesterase activity may be a complementary biomarker in SLOS.

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