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Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications

Bioactivity of coatings formed on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy using plasma electrolytic oxidation.


PMID 25686936

Abstract

In this work, we investigated the bioactivity of anodic oxide coatings on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in solutions containing Ca and P. The bioactive properties of the films were determined by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), and their biocompatibility was examined using adult human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). The oxide layers were characterised based on their surface morphology (SEM, AFM, profilometry) as well as on their chemical and phase compositions (EDX, XRF, XRD, XPS). We report that anodic oxidation of Ti-13Nb-13Zr led to the development of relatively thick anodic oxide films that were enriched in Ca and P in the form of phosphate compounds. Furthermore, the treatment generated rough surfaces with a significant amount of open pores. The surfaces were essentially amorphous, with small amounts of crystalline phases (anatase and rutile) being observed, depending on the PEO process parameters. SBF soaking led to the precipitation of small crystals after one week of experiment. During culturing of hBMSCs on the bioactive Ti-13Nb-13Zr surfaces the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells toward osteoblasts was promoted, which indicated a potential of the modified materials to improve implant osseointegration.