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Journal of hypertension

Sitagliptin attenuated brain damage and cognitive impairment in mice with chronic cerebral hypo-perfusion through suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.


PMID 25689400

Abstract

Sitagliptin, a new antidiabetic drug that inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 enzyme activity, has been reported to possess neuroprotective property. We tested the protective effects of sitagliptin against chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) in mice after bilateral carotid artery stenosis (BCAS). Thirty C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: sham control (n = 10), CHP (n = 10) and CHP-sitagliptin (orally 600 mg/kg/day) (n = 10). Working memory was assessed with novel-object recognition test. MRI was performed at day 0 and day 90 after BCAS procedure prior to sacrifice. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining showed significantly enhanced white matter lesions, microglia activation and astrocytosis of white matter in CHP group than in sham control, but the changes were significantly suppressed after sitagliptin treatment (all P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of inflammatory [tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2] and apoptotic (Bax) biomarkers showed an identical pattern, whereas the anti-inflammatory (interleukin, IL-10) and antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) biomarkers showed an opposite pattern compared with that of IHC among all groups (all P < 0.01). The protein expressions of oxidative stress (NOX-I, NOX-II, nitrotyrosin, oxidized protein), inflammatory [nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), TNF-α and MMP-2], apoptotic [mitochondrial Bax, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)] and DNA-damage (γ-H2AX) markers showed an identical pattern, while expression pattern of antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) was opposite to that of IHC (all P < 0.01). Glycogen-like peptide-1 receptor protein expression progressively increased from sham control to CHP-sitagliptin (P < 0.01). The short-term working-memory loss and MRI/diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) showed a pattern identical to that of IHC in all groups (all P < 0.01). Sitagliptin protected against cognitive impairment and brain damage in a murine CHP model.