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Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN

Thrombin Activity and Thrombin Receptor in Rat Glioblastoma Model: Possible Markers and Targets for Intervention?


PMID 25691153

Abstract

High-grade gliomas constitute a group of aggressive CNS cancers that have high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite extensive research, current therapeutic approaches enable survival beyond 2 years in rare cases only. Thrombin and its main CNS target, protease-activated receptor-1, have been implicated in tumor progression and brain edema. Our aim was to study protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) protein expression and thrombin-like activity levels in both in vitro and in vivo models of glioblastoma and correlate them with the volume of the surrounding edema. We measured the presence of PAR-1 protein using fluorescence immunohistochemistry and assessed thrombin activity in various glial and non-glial cell lines and in a CNS-1 glioma rat model using a thrombin-specific fluorescent assay. Thrombin activity was found to be highly elevated in various high-grade glioma cell lines as well as in non-glial malignant cell lines. In the CNS-1 glioma model, the level of PAR-1 fluorescence in the tumor was significantly elevated compared to adjacent regions of reactive gliosis or distant brain areas. The elevated level of thrombin activity observed in the high-grade glioma positively correlated with tumor-induced brain edema. In conclusion, thrombin is secreted from glioma cells and PAR-1 may be a new biological marker for high-grade gliomas.