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Pharmaceutical biology

Study of cytotoxic activity, podophyllotoxin, and deoxypodophyllotoxin content in selected Juniperus species cultivated in Poland.


PMID 25720974

Abstract

The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated.

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