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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Interplay among nucleosomal DNA, histone tails, and corepressor CoREST underlies LSD1-mediated H3 demethylation.


PMID 25730864

Abstract

With its noncatalytic domains, DNA-binding regions, and a catalytic core targeting the histone tails, LSD1-CoREST (lysine-specific demethylase 1; REST corepressor) is an ideal model system to study the interplay between DNA binding and histone modification in nucleosome recognition. To this end, we covalently associated LSD1-CoREST to semisynthetic nucleosomal particles. This enabled biochemical and biophysical characterizations of nucleosome binding and structural elucidation by small-angle X-ray scattering, which was extensively validated through binding assays and site-directed mutagenesis of functional interfaces. Our results suggest that LSD1-CoREST functions as an ergonomic clamp that induces the detachment of the H3 histone tail from the nucleosomal DNA to make it available for capture by the enzyme active site. The key notion emerging from these studies is the inherently competitive nature of the binding interactions because nucleosome tails, chromatin modifiers, transcription factors, and DNA represent sites for multiple and often mutually exclusive interactions.

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