ACS nano

Red phosphorus-single-walled carbon nanotube composite as a superior anode for sodium ion batteries.

PMID 25738662


Sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been considered as a top alternative to lithium ion batteries due to the earth abundance and low cost of sodium compared with lithium. Among all proposed anode materials for SIBs, red phosphorus (P) is a very promising candidate because it has the highest theoretical capacity (∼2600 mAh/g). In this study, a red P-single-walled carbon nanotube (denoted as red P-SWCNT) composite, in which red P is uniformly distributed between tangled SWCNTs bundles, is fabricated by a modified vaporization-condensation method. Benefiting from the nondestructive preparation process, the highly conductive and mechanically strong SWCNT network is preserved, which enhances the conductivity of the composite and stabilizes the solid electrolyte interphase. As a result, the red P-SWCNT composite presents a high overall sodium storage capacity (∼700 mAh/gcomposite at 50 mA/gcomposite), fast rate capability (∼300 mAh/gcomposite at 2000 mA/gcomposite), and stable long-term cycling performance with 80% capacity retention after 2000 sodiation-desodiation cycles. The red P-SWCNT composite fabricated by the vaporization-condensation method significantly extends the cycling stability of P/carbon composite from current ∼100 cycles to ∼2000 cycles.