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Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)

Effects of a high salt intake and potassium supplementation on QT interval dispersion in normotensive healthy subjects.


PMID 25748738

Abstract

To evaluate the effects of dietary sodium intake on QT interval dispersion (QTd) in normotensive healthy subjects and assess the protective effects of dietary potassium. Methods All subjects were sequentially maintained on a protocol with a three-day baseline investigation, seven-day low-salt period (3 g/day (d), NaCL), seven-day salt loading period (18 g/d, NaCL) and a seven-day salt loading with potassium supplementation period (4.5 g/d, KCL). On the last day of each period, 24-hour urine samples were collected, the blood pressure values were measured and an electrocardiogram was recorded. The QT interval, QTd and T peak-T end interval (Tp-Te) were subsequently measured and calculated. Patients Sixty-four normotensive subjects, men and women, ranging from 28 to 60 years of age, were enrolled. Results There were no great fluctuations in heart rate after salt loading, whereas the systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mmHg) increased and the corrected QT interval (QTc), corrected QT interval dispersion (QTdc) and Tp-Te values were significantly prolonged compared to that observed in the low-salt period (SBP, 118.6 ± 13.5 vs. 111.7 ± 11.3, p<0.01; DBP, 76.9 ± 8.6 vs. 71.7 ± 7.7, p<0.01; QTdc, 60.3 ± 19.4 vs. 55.6 ± 19.4, p<0.05; Tp-Te, 83.0 ± 10.1 vs. 79.8 ± 8.5, p<0.01). Surprisingly, all of these changes were reversed by potassium supplementation (SBP, 114.5 ± 12.3 vs.118.6 ± 13.5, p<0.01; DBP, 72.2 ± 7.9 vs.76.9 ± 8.6, p<0.01;QTd, 42.6 ± 15.1 vs. 47.4 ± 19.0, p<0.05; QTdc, 52.2 ± 18.0 vs. 60.3 ± 19.4, p<0.05; Tp-Te, 79.1 ± 8.5 vs. 83.0 ± 10.1, p<0.01). Conclusion Salt loading prolongs the QT interval, QTd and Tp-Te, while dietary potassium supplementation reverses these alterations. These findings suggest that potassium supplementation may improve variation in the healing time and prevent arrhythmia.