Nature cell biology

AMPK modulates Hippo pathway activity to regulate energy homeostasis.

PMID 25751139


The Hippo pathway was discovered as a conserved tumour suppressor pathway restricting cell proliferation and apoptosis. However, the upstream signals that regulate the Hippo pathway in the context of organ size control and cancer prevention are largely unknown. Here, we report that glucose, the ubiquitous energy source used for ATP generation, regulates the Hippo pathway downstream effector YAP. We show that both the Hippo pathway and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were activated during glucose starvation, resulting in phosphorylation of YAP and contributing to its inactivation. We also identified glucose-transporter 3 (GLUT3) as a YAP-regulated gene involved in glucose metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate that glucose-mediated energy homeostasis is an upstream event involved in regulation of the Hippo pathway and, potentially, an oncogenic function of YAP in promoting glycolysis, thereby providing an exciting link between glucose metabolism and the Hippo pathway in tissue maintenance and cancer prevention.