Pharmaceutical biology

Enhancement of β-secretase inhibition and antioxidant activities of tempeh, a fermented soybean cake through enrichment of bioactive aglycones.

PMID 25756802


Soybean and its fermented products are the most common source of isoflavones in human food. The present study quantifies the major glycosides and aglycones in soybean and its fermented product tempeh isoflavone extracts. The comparision of antioxidant effects and BACE1 inhibitory activity between the isoflavones of soybean and tempeh were also established. The major isoflavones such as daidzein and genistein (aglycones), and their sugar conjugates (glycosides) daidzin and genistin in soybean and tempeh isoflavones were quantified using HPLC analysis. Comparative studies on BACE 1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase 1) inhibition and free-radical scavenging activities (diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion chelating ability) were conducted. The amount of actives (mg/100 g) in soybean isoflavone compared with tempeh isoflavone is as follows: daidzein 16.72 mg/100 g versus 38.91 mg/100 g, genistein 11.10 mg/100 g versus 24.03 mg/100 g, daidzin 6.16 mg/100 g versus 0.69 mg/100 g, and genistin 24.61 mg/100 g versus 6.57 mg/100 g. The IC50 values of soybean and tempeh isoflavones against BACE1 were 10.87 and 5.47 mg/ml, respectively. The tempeh isoflavone had a more potent DPPH free-radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 2.67 mg/ml) than the soybean isoflavone (IC50 = 10 mg/ml). The ferrous ion chelating ability of the isoflavones was practically similar (IC50 = 10.40 mg/ml, soybean and 11.13 mg/ml, tempeh). The present study indicates that tempeh is a healthy supplement to alleviate oxidative stress through the enrichment of aglycones.