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PloS one

Prediction of chemical respiratory sensitizers using GARD, a novel in vitro assay based on a genomic biomarker signature.


PMID 25760038

Abstract

Repeated exposure to certain low molecular weight (LMW) chemical compounds may result in development of allergic reactions in the skin or in the respiratory tract. In most cases, a certain LMW compound selectively sensitize the skin, giving rise to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), or the respiratory tract, giving rise to occupational asthma (OA). To limit occurrence of allergic diseases, efforts are currently being made to develop predictive assays that accurately identify chemicals capable of inducing such reactions. However, while a few promising methods for prediction of skin sensitization have been described, to date no validated method, in vitro or in vivo, exists that is able to accurately classify chemicals as respiratory sensitizers. Recently, we presented the in vitro based Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection (GARD) assay as a novel testing strategy for classification of skin sensitizing chemicals based on measurement of a genomic biomarker signature. We have expanded the applicability domain of the GARD assay to classify also respiratory sensitizers by identifying a separate biomarker signature containing 389 differentially regulated genes for respiratory sensitizers in comparison to non-respiratory sensitizers. By using an independent data set in combination with supervised machine learning, we validated the assay, showing that the identified genomic biomarker is able to accurately classify respiratory sensitizers. We have identified a genomic biomarker signature for classification of respiratory sensitizers. Combining this newly identified biomarker signature with our previously identified biomarker signature for classification of skin sensitizers, we have developed a novel in vitro testing strategy with a potent ability to predict both skin and respiratory sensitization in the same sample.