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Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

The C-terminal disulfide bonds of Helicobacter pylori GroES are critical for IL-8 secretion via the TLR4-dependent pathway in gastric epithelial cells.


PMID 25769921

Abstract

Helicobacter pylori GroES (HpGroES), a potent immunogen, is a secreted virulence factor that stimulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis. HpGroES is larger than other bacterial orthologs because of an additional C-terminal region, known as domain B. We found that the HpGroES-induced IL-8 release by human gastric epithelial cells was dependent on activation of the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. HpGroES lacking domain B was unable to induce IL-8 release. Additionally, a TLR4 inhibitor significantly inhibited IL-8 secretion and reduced HpGroES-induced activation of MAPKs. Furthermore, HpGroES-induced IL-8 release by primary gastric epithelial cells from TLR4(-/-) mice was significantly lower than from wild-type mice. We also found that HpGroES bound to TLR4 in cell lysates and colocalized with TLR4 on the cell membrane only when domain B was present. We then constructed two deletion mutants lacking C-terminal regions and mutants with point mutations of two of the four cysteine residues, C111 and C112, in domain B and found that the deletion mutants and a double mutant lacking the C94-C111 and C95-C112 disulfide bonds were unable to interact with TLR4 or induce IL-8 release. We conclude that HpGroES, in which a unique conformational structure, domain B, is generated by these two disulfide bonds, induces IL-8 secretion via a TLR4-dependent mechanism.