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International journal of hygiene and environmental health

Predictors of urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, and pentachlorophenol in 121 adults in Ohio.


PMID 25891895

Abstract

Limited data exist on the driving factors that influence the non-occupational exposures of adults to pesticides using urinary biomonitoring. In this work, the objectives were to quantify the urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in 121 adults over a 48-h monitoring period and to examine the associations between selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and urinary levels of each pesticide biomarker. Adults, ages 20-49 years old, were recruited from six counties in Ohio (OH) in 2001. The participants collected 4-6 spot urine samples and completed questionnaires and diaries at home over a 48-h monitoring period. Urine samples were analyzed for 2,4-D, TCP, 3-PBA, and PCP by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multiple regression modeling was used to determine the impact of selected sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the log-transformed (ln) levels of each pesticide biomarker in adults. The pesticide biomarkers were detected in ≥ 89% of the urine samples, except for 3-PBA (66%). Median urinary levels of 2,4-D, TCP, 3-PBA, and PCP were 0.7, 3.4, 0.3, and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Results showed that 48-h sweet/salty snack consumption, 48-h time spend outside at home, and ln(creatinine) levels were significant predictors (p < 0.05), and race was a marginally significant predictor (p = 0.093) of the adults' ln(urinary 2,4-D) concentrations. Strong predictors (p < 0.05) of the adults' ln(urinary TCP) concentrations were urbanicity, employment status, sampling season, and ln(creatinine) levels. For 3-PBA, sampling season, pet ownership and removal of shoes before entering the home were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of the adults' ln(urinary 3-PBA) levels. Finally for PCP, removal of shoes before entering the home and ln(creatinine) levels were significant predictors (p < 0.05), and pet ownership was a marginally significant predictor (p = 0.056) of the adults' ln(urinary PCP) concentrations. In conclusion, specific sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were identified that increased the exposures of these adults to several different pesticides in their daily environments.