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Molecular and cellular biochemistry

Nano-Se attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury through modulation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice.


PMID 25920447

Abstract

Chemotherapy is an integral part of modern day treatment regimen but anticancer drugs fail to demarcate between cancerous and normal cells thereby causing severe form of systemic toxicity. Among which pulmonary toxicity is a dreadful complication developed in cancer patients upon cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy. Oxidative stress, fibrosis, and apoptosis are the major patho-mechanisms involved in CP-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the present study, we have synthesized Nano-Se, nanotechnology-based new form of elemental selenium which has significantly lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. In order to meet the need of effective drugs against CP-induced adverse effects, nano selenium (Nano-Se) was tested for its possible protective efficacy on CP-induced pulmonary toxicity and bone marrow toxicity. CP intoxication resulted in structural and functional lung impairment which was revealed by massive histopathological changes. Lung injury was associated with oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation as evident by increased in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation with decreased in level of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Furthermore, CP at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. increased pulmonary DNA damage ('comet tail') and triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cells. On the other hand, Nano-Se at a dose of 2 mg Se/kg b.w., significantly inhibited CP-induced DNA damage in bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and decreased the apoptosis and percentage of DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells and also antagonized the reduction of the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the increase level of MDA. Thus, our results suggest that Nano-Se in pre- and co-administration may serve as a promising preventive strategy against CP-induced pulmonary toxicity.

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