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Diabetes, obesity & metabolism

Pharmacological characterization and antidiabetic activity of a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue conjugated to an antithrombin III-binding pentasaccharide.


PMID 25929155

Abstract

To examine the biological characteristics of a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) conjugate, in which an antithrombin III (ATIII)-binding pentasaccharide is conjugated to d-Ala(8) GLP-1 using a tetraethylene glycol linker. We assessed GLP-1 receptor binding, cAMP generation and insulin secretory activity of the GLP-1 conjugate in vitro. Circulating half-life, glucose homeostatic and subchronic therapeutic effectiveness were then examined in vivo. The half-life of the GLP-1 conjugate in mice was ∼11 h. In vitro insulin secretion from clonal β cells and islets was increased (p < 0.001) by the conjugate. The conjugate had half maximum effective concentration values of 1.3 × 10(-7) and 9.9 × 10(-8)  M for displacement of (125) I-GLP-1 in competitive GLP-1 receptor binding and cAMP generation, respectively. Glucose tolerance in normal mice, immediately and 4 h after conjugate injection, resulted in significant (p < 0.001) improvements in blood glucose. These effects persisted for >48 h after administration. Daily treatment (21 days) of high-fat-fed and ob/ob mice with 25 nmol/kg conjugate resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance (p < 0.001) and reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c; p < 0.01) equivalent to or better than with exenatide or liraglutide. Treatment of C57BL/KsJ db/db mice for 15 days with 100 nmol/kg conjugate significantly (p < 0.001) reduced glucose and raised plasma insulin. Oral glucose tolerance was significantly (p < 0.001) improved and both 24-h glucose profile (p < 0.001) and HbA1c levels (p < 0.001) were reduced. Islet size (p < 0.001) and pancreatic insulin content were increased without change of islet cell proliferation or apoptosis. These data show that d-Ala(8) GLP-1(Lys(37) ) pentasaccharide exerts significant antidiabetic actions and has a projected pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile that merits further evaluation in humans for a possible once-weekly dosing regimen.