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The Journal of biological chemistry

Chronic Exposure to Excess Nutrients Left-shifts the Concentration Dependence of Glucose-stimulated Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β-Cells.


PMID 25934392

Abstract

Hyperinsulinemia (HI) is elevated plasma insulin at basal glucose. Impaired glucose tolerance is associated with HI, although the exact cause and effect relationship remains poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that HI can result from an intrinsic response of the β-cell to chronic exposure to excess nutrients, involving a shift in the concentration dependence of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. INS-1 (832/13) cells were cultured in either a physiological (4 mm) or high (11 mm) glucose concentration with or without concomitant exposure to oleate. Isolated rat islets were also cultured with or without oleate. A clear hypersensitivity to submaximal glucose concentrations was evident in INS-1 cells cultured in excess nutrients such that the 25% of maximal (S0.25) glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was significantly reduced in cells cultured in 11 mm glucose (S0.25 = 3.5 mm) and 4 mm glucose with oleate (S0.25 = 4.5 mm) compared with 4 mm glucose alone (S0.25 = 5.7 mm). The magnitude of the left shift was linearly correlated with intracellular lipid stores in INS-1 cells (r(2) = 0.97). We observed no significant differences in the dose responses for glucose stimulation of respiration, NAD(P)H autofluorescence, or Ca(2+) responses between left- and right-shifted β-cells. However, a left shift in the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca(2+) was documented in permeabilized INS-1 cells cultured in 11 versus 4 mm glucose (S0.25 = 1.1 and 1.7 μm, respectively). Our results suggest that the sensitivity of exocytosis to triggering is modulated by a lipid component, the levels of which are influenced by the culture nutrient environment.