EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

The Journal of biological chemistry

Impact of Exogenous Galectin-9 on Human T Cells: CONTRIBUTION OF THE T CELL RECEPTOR COMPLEX TO ANTIGEN-INDEPENDENT ACTIVATION BUT NOT TO APOPTOSIS INDUCTION.


PMID 25947381

Abstract

Galectin-9 (gal-9) is a multifunctional β-galactoside-binding lectin, frequently released in the extracellular medium, where it acts as a pleiotropic immune modulator. Despite its overall immunosuppressive effects, a recent study has reported bimodal action of gal-9 on human resting blood T cells with apoptosis occurring in the majority of them, followed by a wave of activation and expansion of Th1 cells in the surviving population. Our knowledge of the signaling events triggered by exogenous gal-9 in T cells remains limited. One of these events is cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) release reported in some murine and human T cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of Ca(2+) mobilization to apoptotic and nonapoptotic effects of exogenous gal-9 in human T cells. We found that the T cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex and the Lck kinase were required for Ca(2+) mobilization but not for apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. These data were confirmed in human CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood as follows: a specific Lck chemical inhibitor abrogated Ca(2+) mobilization but not apoptosis induction. Moreover, Lck activity was also required for the production of Th1-type cytokines, i.e. interleukin-2 and interferon-γ, which resulted from gal-9 stimulation in peripheral CD4(+) T cells. These findings indicate that gal-9 acts on T cells by two distinct pathways as follows: one mimicking antigen-specific activation of the TCR with a mandatory contribution of proximal elements of the TCR complex, especially Lck, and another resulting in apoptosis that is independent of this complex.