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International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group

A study of thermal dose-induced autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in colon cancer cells.


PMID 25974074

Abstract

The pleiotropic effects of heat on cancer cells have been well documented. The biological effects seen depend on the temperature applied, and the heating duration. In this study we investigate the cytotoxic effects of heat on colon cancer cells and determine how different cell death processes such as autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis play a role in cell response. The thermal dose concept was used to provide a parameter that will allow comparison of different thermal treatments. Two human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29, were subjected to ablative temperatures using a polymerase chain reaction thermal cycler. Temperature was recorded using thermocouples. Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay. Induction of apoptosis was estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that detects cleaved cytoplasmic nucleosomes. Protein regulation was determined using immunoblotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis and autophagy was determined with annexin V/propidium iodide staining and a cationic amphiphilic tracer using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Exposure of colon cancer cells to ablative thermal doses results in decreased cell viability. The cytotoxic effect of heat is associated with induction of apoptosis and autophagy, the amount depending on both the thermal dose applied and on the time elapsed after treatment. Autophagy induction is mainly seen in live cells. RIPK3 protein levels are increased after exposure of cells to heat. A necroptosis inhibitor does not affect cell viability. Autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis are associated with the response of these cancer cell lines to supra-normal temperatures.