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The Biochemical journal

Slc5a8, a Na+-coupled high-affinity transporter for short-chain fatty acids, is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon that protects against colitis and colon cancer under low-fibre dietary conditions.


PMID 25984582

Abstract

Mammalian colon harbours trillions of bacteria under physiological conditions; this symbiosis is made possible because of a tolerized response from the mucosal immune system. The mechanisms underlying this tolerogenic phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we show that Slc5a8 (solute carrier gene family 5a, member 8), a Na(+)-coupled high-affinity transporter in colon for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate, plays a critical role in this process. Among various immune cells in colon, dendritic cells (DCs) are unique not only in their accessibility to luminal contents but also in their ability to induce tolerogenic phenotype in T-cells. We found that DCs exposed to butyrate express the immunosuppressive enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A2 (Aldh1A2), promote conversion of naive T-cells into immunosuppressive forkhead box P3(+) (FoxP3(+)) Tregs (regulatory T-cells) and suppress conversion of naive T-cells into pro-inflammatory interferon (IFN)-γ-producing cells. Slc5a8-null DCs do not induce IDO1 and Aldh1A2 and do not generate Tregs or suppress IFN-γ-producing T-cells in response to butyrate. We also provide inxa0vivo evidence for an obligatory role for Slc5a8xa0in suppression of IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Furthermore, Slc5a8 protects against colitis and colon cancer under conditions of low-fibre intake but not when dietary fibre intake is optimal. This agrees with the high-affinity nature of the transporter to mediate butyrate entry into cells. We conclude that Slc5a8 is an obligatory link between dietary fibre and mucosal immune system via the bacterial metabolite butyrate and that this transporter is a conditional tumour suppressor in colon linked to dietary fibre content.

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