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BMC research notes

Antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus species isolated from intestinal tracts of hospitalized patients in Jimma, Ethiopia.


PMID 26036911

Abstract

Multi-drug-resistant Enterococci colonizing the intestinal tract of hospitalized patients are the major source of infection as well as nosocomial spread. Despite worldwide increasing rate of multidrug resistant Enterococci colonization and infection among hospitalized patients, there is scarcity of data from resource limited setting. The present study aimed at determining the antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus species from intestinal tracts of hospitalized patients in Jimma, Ethiopia. The study was conducted among hospitalized patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, from January to July 2013. Fecal samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and susceptibility testing to antimicrobial agents. Stool samples were inoculated onto enterococcus selective media (Bile Esculin azide agar plate) with and without 6xa0µg/ml of vancomycin. The isolates were identified to genus and species level by cultural characteristics, Gram's stain, catalase test, growth in 6.5% NaCl broth, growth at 45°C, motility test and by using API 20 Streptococcus system. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations for vancomycin were determined using E-test strips. Overall, Enterococci were isolated from 114 (76%) of the study subjects. The isolates were Enterococcus faecium (35.1%) followed by Enterococcus faecalis (29.8%), Enterococcus gallinarum (17.5%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (8.8%) and Enterococcus durans (8.8%). Among 114 tested Enterococci isolates, 41 (36%) were resistant to ampicillin, 62 (54.4%) to streptomycin and 39 (34.2%) to gentamycin. Other alternative antibiotics to treat mixed nosocomial infection caused by Enterococci also showed high rate of resistance in vitro: ciprofloxacin (50% of resistance), norfloxacin (49.1%), erythromycin (63.2%), tetracycline (64.9%), chloramphenicol (34.2%), and nitrofrantoin (32.4%). Multiple drug resistance was observed among 89.5% of E. faecium and E. faecalis. Vancomycin resistant Enterococci were observed in 5% of E. faecium isolates. This study reveals high rate of fecal colonization by multidrug-resistant Enterococci and prevalence of vancomycin resistance strains. Thus periodic surveillance of antibacterial susceptibilities is recommended to detect emerging resistance and to prevent the spread of antibacterial-resistant strains.