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Acta tropica

A protective effect of the laminated layer on Echinococcus granulosus survival dependent on upregulation of host arginase.


PMID 26048557

Abstract

The role of nitric oxide (NO) in host defense against Echinococcus granulosus larvae was previously reported. However, NO production by NOS2 (inducible NO synthase) is counteracted by the expression of Arginase. In the present study, our aim is to evaluate the involvement of the laminated layer (external layer of parasitic cyst) in Arginase induction and the protoscoleces (living and infective part of the cyst) survival. Our in vitro results indicate that this cystic compound increases the Arginase activity in macrophages. Moreover, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) with specificity for mannan and the TGF-β are implicated in this effect as shown after adding Mannan and Anti-TGFβ. Interestingly, the laminated layer increases protoscoleces survival in macrophages-parasite co-cultures. Our results indicate that the laminated layer protects E. granulosus against the NOS2 protective response through Arginase pathway, a hallmark of M2 macrophages.