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Molecular and cellular biochemistry

Rosiglitazone suppresses HIV-1 Tat-induced vascular inflammation via Akt signaling.


PMID 26048716

Abstract

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARƔ) contributes to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-induced dysfunction of brain endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protection mechanism of PPARƔ against Tat-induced responses of adhesion molecules. We measured the protein expressions of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) and C57BL/6J mouse brain microvessels with Western blotting and immunofluorescent labeling. The mRNA levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. HIV-1 Tat induced overexpression of ICAM-1 but not VCAM-1 in both hCMEC/D3 and brain microvessels, this response was attenuated by treatment with the PPARƔ agonist rosiglitazone. Tat-mediated upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were abolished by the addition of PPARƔ antagonist GW9662 and the Akt inhibitor KP3721, indicating that Akt signaling is involved in the PPARƔ-mediated protection of Tat-induced adhesion molecule upregulation. These results show that Akt signaling plays a key role in PPARƔ's vascular inflammatory effects that contribute to blood-brain barrier damage.

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