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Cardiovascular diabetology

Association between daily glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque properties in patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy assessed by continuous glucose monitoring and optical coherence tomography.


PMID 26062762

Abstract

Glucose fluctuation has been recognized as a residual risk apart from dyslipidemia for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to investigate the association between glucose fluctuation and coronary plaque morphology in CAD patients. This prospective study enrolled 72 consecutive CAD patients receiving adequate lipid-lowering therapy. They were divided into 3 tertiles according to the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), which represents glucose fluctuation, measured by continuous glucose monitoring (tertile 1; < 49.1, tertile 2; 49.1 ~ 85.3, tertile 3; >85.3). Morphological feature of plaques were evaluated by optical coherence tomography. Lipid index (LI) (mean lipid arc × length), fibrous cap thickness (FCT), and the prevalence of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) were assessed in both culprit and non-culprit lesions. In total, 166 lesions were evaluated. LI was stepwisely increased according to the tertile of MAGE (1958 ± 974 [tertile 1] vs. 2653 ± 1400 [tertile 2] vs. 4362 ± 1858 [tertile 3], p < 0.001), whereas FCT was the thinnest in the tertile 3 (157.3 ± 73.0 μm vs. 104.0 ± 64.1 μm vs. 83.1 ± 34.7 μm, p < 0.001, respectively). The tertile 3 had the highest prevalence of TCFA. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that MAGE had the strongest effect on LI and FCT (standardized coefficient β = 0.527 and -0.392, respectively, both P < 0.001). Multiple logistic analysis identified MAGE as the only independent predictor of the presence of TCFA (odds ratio 1.034; P < 0.001). Glucose fluctuation and hypoglycemia may impact the formation of lipid-rich plaques and thinning of fibrous cap in CAD patients with lipid-lowering therapy.