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BioMed research international

Antiherpes Activity and Skin/Mucosa Distribution of Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides Extract Incorporated into Topical Nanoemulsions.


PMID 26101767

Abstract

This study investigated the inhibitory effects of Achyrocline satureioides extract (ASE) incorporated into a topical nanoemulsion on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1/KOS strain) replication, as well as the distribution of the main ASE flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin) in porcine skin and mucosa. The ASE-loaded nanoemulsion showed more pronounced effects against HSV-1 replication when compared to the ASE or pure quercetin, as determined by the viral plaque number reduction assay. All flavonoids were detected in the skin epidermis (2.2 µg/cm(2)) and the mucosa upper layers (3.0 µg/cm(2)) from ASE-loaded nanoemulsion until 8 h after topical application. A higher amount of flavonoids was detected when these tissues were impaired, especially in deeper mucosa layers (up to 7-fold). Flavonoids were detected in the receptor fluid only when the mucosa was injured. Such results were supported by confocal microscopy images. Overall, these findings suggest that the tested ASE-loaded nanoemulsion has potential to be used topically for herpes infections.

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