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ACS applied materials & interfaces

Effects of graphene modification on the bioactivation of polyethylene-terephthalate-based artificial ligaments.


PMID 26111253

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate whether surface coating with graphene could enhance the surface bioactivation of PET-based artificial ligaments to accelerate graft-to-bone healing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. In an in vitro study, the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and their differentiation on the scaffolds were quantified via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. The significantly higher optical-density values and transcription levels of osteoblast-specific genes indicated that graphene modification could promote the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and accelerate their specific differentiation into osteogenic lineages on scaffolds. In an in vivo test, rabbits were used to establish an extra-articular graft-to-bone healing model. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery, biomechanical tests, microcomputed tomography analysis, and histological observations were performed. The final results demonstrated that the microstructural parameters, the average mineral apposition rate of the bone, and the biomechanical properties of the graphene-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-based artificial ligament (G-PET-AL) group were significantly higher than those of the PET-AL graft group (P < 0.05). The results of Van Gieson staining indicated that in the G-PET-AL group, there was more newly formed bone than there was in the group in which nongraphene-coated PET-ALs were used. In conclusion, graphene exhibits considerable potential for enhancing the surface bioactivation of materials.

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