EMAIL THIS PAGE TO A FRIEND

Developmental biology

Gdf5 progenitors give rise to fibrocartilage cells that mineralize via hedgehog signaling to form the zonal enthesis.


PMID 26141957

Abstract

The sequence of events that leads to the formation of a functionally graded enthesis is not clearly defined. The current study demonstrates that clonal expansion of Gdf5 progenitors contributes to linear growth of the enthesis. Prior to mineralization, Col1+ cells in the enthesis appose Col2+ cells of the underlying primary cartilage. At the onset of enthesis mineralization, cells at the base of the enthesis express alkaline phosphatase, Indian hedgehog, and ColX as they mineralize. The mineralization front then extends towards the tendon midsubstance as cells above the front become encapsulated in mineralized fibrocartilage over time. The hedgehog (Hh) pathway regulates this process, as Hh-responsive Gli1+ cells within the developing enthesis mature from unmineralized to mineralized fibrochondrocytes in response to activated signaling. Hh signaling is required for mineralization, as tissue-specific deletion of its obligate transducer Smoothened in the developing tendon and enthesis cells leads to significant reductions in the apposition of mineralized fibrocartilage. Together, these findings provide a spatiotemporal map of events - from expansion of the embryonic progenitor pool to synthesis of the collagen template and finally mineralization of this template - that leads to the formation of the mature zonal enthesis. These results can inform future tendon-to-bone repair strategies to create a mechanically functional enthesis in which tendon collagen fibers are anchored to bone through mineralized fibrocartilage.

Related Materials

Product #

Image

Description

Molecular Formula

Add to Cart

N9389
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate, tablet
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
N2765
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate, tablet
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
N2640
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate, tablet
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
N4645
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥97%
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
71768
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate disodium salt hexahydrate, for enzyme immunoassay, ≥99.0% (enzymatic)
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
SAB1302571 ANTI-IHH (C-TERM) antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
SAB1301614
ANTI-IHH (N-TERM) antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
WH0003549M1
Monoclonal Anti-IHH antibody produced in mouse, clone 2G9, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
SAB1403965
Monoclonal Anti-IHH antibody produced in mouse, clone 2F3, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
SAB1409241 Monoclonal Anti-IHH antibody produced in mouse, clone 3A10, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
P4744
Phosphatase substrate, powder
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
S0942
Phosphatase substrate, 5 mg tablets
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
P5994
Phosphatase substrate, 40 mg tablets
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
P5744
Phosphatase substrate, 40 mg capsules
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
P5869
Phosphatase substrate, 100 mg capsules
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
SRE0026
Phosphatase substrate, Suitable for manufacturing of diagnostic kits and reagents
C6H4NNa2O6P · 6H2O
T5648
Tamoxifen, ≥99%
C26H29NO