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Journal of virology

Downregulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 by a Viral Processivity Factor Facilitates Lytic Replication of Gammaherpesvirus.


PMID 26157130

Abstract

In Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) acts as an inhibitor of lytic replication. Here, we demonstrate that KSHV downregulated PARP-1 upon reactivation. The viral processivity factor of KSHV (PF-8) interacted with PARP-1 and was sufficient to degrade PARP-1 in a proteasome-dependent manner; this effect was conserved in murine gammaherpesvirus 68. PF-8 knockdown in KSHV-infected cells resulted in reduced lytic replication upon reactivation with increased levels of PARP-1, compared to those in control cells. PF-8 overexpression reduced the levels of the poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated (PARylated) replication and transcription activator (RTA) and further enhanced RTA-mediated transactivation. These results suggest a novel viral mechanism for overcoming the inhibitory effect of a host factor, PARP-1, thereby promoting the lytic replication of gammaherpesvirus. Gammaherpesviruses are important human pathogens, as they are associated with various kinds of tumors and establish latency mainly in host B lymphocytes. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a central molecular switch for lytic replication, and its expression is tightly regulated by many host and viral factors. In this study, we investigated a viral strategy to overcome the inhibitory effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) on RTA's activity. PARP-1, an abundant multifunctional nuclear protein, was downregulated during KSHV reactivation. The viral processivity factor of KSHV (PF-8) directly interacted with PARP-1 and was sufficient and necessary to degrade PARP-1 protein in a proteasome-dependent manner. PF-8 reduced the levels of PARylated RTA and further promoted RTA-mediated transactivation. As this was also conserved in another gammaherpesvirus, murine gammaherpesvirus 68, our results suggest a conserved viral modulation of a host inhibitory factor to facilitate its lytic replication.

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