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The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Gamma Contributes to Neuroinflammation in a Rat Model of Surgical Brain Injury.


PMID 26203135

Abstract

Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathophysiology of surgical brain injury (SBI). Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ), predominately expressed in immune and endothelial cells, activates multiple inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated the role of PI3Kγ and PI3Kγ-activated phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) in neuroinflammation in a rat model of SBI. One hundred and fifty-two male Sprague Dawley rats (weight 280-350 g) were subjected to a partial right frontal lobe corticotomy model of SBI. A PI3Kγ pharmacological inhibitor (AS252424 or AS605240) was administered intraperitoneally. PI3Kγ siRNA, human recombinant active-PI3Kγ protein, or human recombinant active-PDE3B protein were administered intracerebroventricularly. Post-SBI assessments included neurobehavioral tests, brain water content, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Endogenous PI3Kγ levels were increased within peri-resection brain tissues after SBI, accompanied by increased brain water content and neurological functional deficits. There was a trend toward increased endogenous PDE3B phosphorylation after SBI. The selective PI3Kγ inhibitors AS252424 and AS605240 reduced brain water content surrounding corticotomy and improved neurological function after SBI. SBI increased and PI3Kγ inhibitor decreased levels of myeloperoxidase, cluster of differentiation 3, mast cell degranulation, E-selectin, and IL-1 in peri-resection brain tissues. Direct administration of human recombinant active-PI3Kγ protein and active-PDE3B protein countered the protective effect of AS252424. PI3Kγ siRNA reduced PI3Kγ levels, decreased brain water content within peri-resection brain tissues, and improved neurological function after SBI. Collectively, our findings suggest that PI3Kγ contributed to neuroinflammation after SBI. The use of selective PI3Kγ inhibitors may be a novel approach to ameliorating SBI via their anti-inflammation effects. Significance statement: Life-saving or elective neurosurgeries often involve unavoidable damages to neighboring, nondiseased brain tissues. Such surgical brain injury (SBI) is attributable exclusively to the neurosurgical procedure itself and may cause postoperative complications that exacerbate neurological function. Although the importance of this medical problem is fully acknowledged, intraoperative administration of adjunctive treatment such as steroids and mannitol to patients undergoing neurosurgery appear not to be efficient remedies for SBI. To date, the issue of perioperative neuroprotection specifically against SBI has not been well studied. Using a clinically relevant rat model of SBI, we are exploring a new neuroprotective strategy targeting phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ). PI3Kγ activates multiple inflammatory responses. By attenuating neuroinflammation, selective PI3Kγ inhibition would limit postoperative complications and benefit neurological outcomes.

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