PloS one

IL-25 and IL-33 Contribute to Development of Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Epicutaneously Antigen-Sensitized Mice.

PMID 26230091


IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP are produced predominantly by epithelial cells and are known to induce Th2-type cytokines. Th2-type cytokines are involved not only in host defense against nematodes, but also in the development of Th2-type allergic diseases. TSLP was reported to be crucial for development of allergic airway inflammation in mice after inhalation of allergens to which they had been sensitized epicutaneously (EC) beforehand. However, the roles of IL-25 and IL-33 in the setting remain unclear. Mice deficient in IL-25 and IL-33 were sensitized EC with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged intranasally with OVA. Airway inflammation, the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in the mice were determined, respectively, by histological analysis, with a hemocytometer, and by using plethysmograph chambers with a ventilator. Expression of mRNA in the skin and lungs was determined by quantitative PCR, while the BALF levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and the serum levels of IgE were determined by ELISA. Normal OVA-specific Th2- and Th17-cell responses of lymph nodes and spleens were observed in IL-25-deficient (IL-25-/-) and IL-33-/- mice after EC sensitization with OVA. Nevertheless, the number of eosinophils, but not neutrophils, in the BALFs, and the levels of Th2 cytokines, but not Th17 cytokines, in the lungs were significantly decreased in the IL-25-/- and IL-33-/- mice pre-sensitized EC with OVA, followed by inhalation of OVA, whereas their levels of AHR and OVA-specific serum IgE were normal. Both IL-25 and IL-33 are critical for induction of Th2-type cytokine-mediated allergic airway eosinophilia, but not Th17-type cytokine-mediated airway neutrophilia, at the local sites of lungs in the challenge phase of mice sensitized EC with OVA. They do not affect OVA-specific T-cell induction in the sensitization phase.