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BMC infectious diseases

Evaluation of two immunodiagnostic tests for early rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: a preliminary study.


PMID 26259957

Abstract

Leptospirosis is often treated based on clinical diagnosis. There is a need for rapid laboratory diagnosis for this condition. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two rapid IgM based immunodiagnostic assays with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), in acute leptospirosis infection. MAT, IgM based immunochromatographic test (Leptocheck-WB) and IgM ELISA were performed using acute sera of patients clinically suspected to have leptospirosis (n = 83). Bayesian latent class modeling was used to compare the accuracy of these tests. Percentage positivity for MAT, Leptocheck-WB, and IgM ELISA were 48.1, 55.3, and 45.7 % respectively. Bayesian latent class modeling showed a combined positivity rate of leptospirosis of 44.7 %. The sensitivity of MAT, Leptocheck-WB and IgM ELISA were 91.4, 95 and 81.1 %, and specificity were 86.7, 76.4 and 83.1 %, respectively. Leptocheck-WB has high sensitivity, and, because it is quick and easy to perform, would be a good screening test for acute leptospirosis infection. IgM ELISA has good specificity, and is comparable with MAT; given that it is easier to perform and more widely available than MAT, it would be a more appropriate confirmatory test for use in hospitals with limited access to a specialized laboratory.