American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism

Cytochrome c release from rat liver mitochondria is compromised by increased saturated cardiolipin species induced by sucrose feeding.

PMID 26353385


Cytochrome c release from mitochondria has been described to be related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. With ROS generation being increased in fatty liver from sucrose-fed (SF) rats, we hypothesized that cytochrome c release might be positively associated with H2O2 generation from SF mitochondria. Surprisingly, cytochrome c release from mitochondria of SF liver was found to be significantly lower compared with control (C) mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate/malate or succinate. Exposure of mitochondria to exogenous superoxide radical generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system elicits a dose-response cytochrome c release in both control and SF mitochondria, but cytochrome c release remains lower in SF mitochondria compared with C mitochondria. Furthermore, the addition of ebselen, PEG-catalase, or catalase, a H2O2 scavenger, significantly reduces cytochrome c release from C and SF mitochondria. Our results suggest that both intra- and extramitochondrial H2O2 are involved in cytochrome c release, but the persisting difference between C and SF levels can be attributed to the differences in cardiolipin compositions. Indeed, the ratio of palmitic acid-rich cardiolipin species was found to be increased in lipid membrane from SF mitochondria compared with C mitochondria, whereas that of linoleic acid-rich cardiolipin species was found decreased. In addition, the content of tafazzin, a protein responsible for cardiolipin remodeling, was decreased in SF mitochondria. Therefore, we conclude that the changes observed in the composition of cardiolipin molecular species in SF mitochondria may be involved in cytochrome c interaction with mitochondrial inner membrane lipid and in its reduced release from SF mitochondria.