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Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology

A Comprehensive Overview on Myositis-Specific Antibodies: New and Old Biomarkers in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy.


PMID 26424665

Abstract

Autoantibodies specific for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs)) are clinically useful biomarkers to help the diagnosis of polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). Many of these are also associated with a unique clinical subset of PM/DM, making them useful in predicting and monitoring certain clinical manifestations. Classic MSAs known for over 30xa0years include antibodies to Jo-1 (histidyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthetase) and other aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS), anti-Mi-2, and anti-signal recognition particle (SRP). Anti-Jo-1 is the first autoantibodies to ARS detected in 15-25xa0% of patients. In addition to anti-Jo-1, antibodies to seven other aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS) have been reported with prevalence, usually 1-5xa0% or lower. Patients with any anti-ARS antibodies are associated with anti-synthetase syndrome characterized by myositis, interstitial lung disease (ILD), arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and others. Several recent studies suggested heterogeneity in clinical features among different anti-ARS antibody-positive patients and anti-ARS may also be found in idiopathic ILD without myositis. Anti-Mi-2 is a classic marker for DM and associated with good response to steroid treatment and good prognosis. Anti-SRP is specific for PM and associated with treatment-resistant myopathy histologically characterized as necrotizing myopathy. In addition to classic MSAs, several new autoantibodies with strong clinical significance have been described in DM. Antibodies to transcription intermediary factor 1γ/α (TIF1γ/α, p155/140) are frequently found in DM associated with malignancy while anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5; CADM140) are associated with clinically amyopathic DM (CADM) complicated by rapidly progressive ILD. Also, anti-MJ/nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP-2) and anti-small ubiquitin-like modifier-1 (SUMO-1) activating enzyme (SAE) are recognized as new DM-specific autoantibodies. Addition of these new antibodies to clinical practice in the future will help in making earlier and more accurate diagnoses and better management for patients.