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Hepatic TLR4 signaling is activated by LPS from digestive tract during SARA, and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to enforced TLR4 expression.


PMID 26498350

Abstract

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is known to trigger a systemic inflammatory response that is possibly caused by the translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream. The aim of this study is to investigate this causal relationship between the increases of circulating LPS and liver inflammation. Here we found that SARA goats exhibited significantly increased LPS concentrations in both the rumen and portal vein. The livers of these goats exhibited increased mRNA concentrations of pro-inflammatory genes that indicated inflammation. Meanwhile, the occurrence of liver inflammation was further validated by the enhanced protein expression of those cytokines in the livers of SARA goats. These increased expressions of detected pro-inflammatory genes were likely mediated by enforced TLR4 signaling because SARA increased the concentrations of TLR4 mRNA and protein in the liver and the abundance of both the NF-kB-p65 factor and its active phosphorylated variant. We also verified that the enhanced TLR4 expression was accompanied by chromatin decompaction and demethylation of the proximal TLR4 promoter. Hence, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the enforced expression of immune genes during SARA, and these findings open innovative routes for interventions via the modulation of these epigenetic mechanisms.