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Molecular carcinogenesis

Anandamide-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis are mediated by oxidative stress in non-melanoma skin cancer: Receptor-independent endocannabinoid signaling.


PMID 26513129

Abstract

Endocannabinoids are neuromodulatory lipids that regulate central and peripheral physiological functions. Endocannabinoids have emerged as effective antitumor drugs due to their ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer studies. The G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and the TRPV1 ion channel were reported to mediate the antiproliferative activity of endocannabinoids. However, receptor-independent effects also account for their activity. Our previous studies showed that the antiproliferative activity of anandamide (AEA) was regulated by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) via induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also determined that AEA induced oxidative stress. However, the role of oxidative stress, the cannabinoid receptors, and TRPV1 in AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis was unclear. Therefore, the current study examines the role of oxidative stress in ER stress-apoptosis and investigates whether this effect is modulated by CB1, CB2, or TRPV1. In non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells, AEA reduced the total intracellular level of glutathione and induced oxidative stress. To evaluate the importance of oxidative stress in AEA-induced cell death, the antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Trolox, were utilized. Each antioxidant ameliorated the antiproliferative effect of AEA. Furthermore, Trolox inhibited AEA-induced CHOP10 expression and caspase 3 activity, indicating that oxidative stress was required for AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis. On the other hand, selective blockade of CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 did not inhibit AEA-induced oxidative stress or ER stress-apoptosis. These findings suggest that AEA-induced ER stress-apoptosis in NMSC cells is mediated by oxidative stress through a receptor-independent mechanism. Hence, receptor-independent AEA signaling pathways may be targeted to eliminate NMSC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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