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Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology

Caveolae as a target to quench autoinduction of the metastatic phenotype in lung cancer.


PMID 26573510

Abstract

Mevalonate pathway inhibitors are potentially useful chemotherapeutic agents showing growth inhibition and pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells. The effects of statins and bisphosphonates on cancer growth are attributed to a reduction in protein isoprenylation. Post-translational modification and activation of GTPase binding Ras superfamily permit the recruitment of these signal proteins to membranes where they mediate the cancer phenotype. Here, the effects of three inhibitors of the mevalonate pathway and one specific inhibitor of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins were studied in both an ER-negative, Ras-inactive breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung adenocarcinoma (CaLu-1) cells in vitro. Treated cells were subject to genome-wide gene expression profiling. A gene subset was established so that the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) could be observed and compared with signalling protein shifts. Within the subset, some genes normally up-regulated during EMT were asymmetrically reduced by a Δ-24 DHCR inhibitor in the lung cells. Signalling proteins associated with caveolae were down-regulated by this oxidoreductase inhibitor, while those associated with membrane rafts were up-regulated. This study decouples isoprenylation effects from cholesterol events per se. The data support a hypothesis that caveolae are abolished by Δ-24 DHCR intervention and it is revealed that these microdomains are vital EMT signalling structures for lung cells but not ER- and Ras-negative breast cells. When signalling by extracellular signals is quenched by removal of the hydrophilic conduit provided by caveolae, the transcriptome responds by moving the cellular identity towards quiescence.

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SML0223
Zoledronic acid monohydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
C5H10N2O7P2·H2O