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In-depth proteomic analysis of shell matrix proteins of Pinctada fucata.


PMID 26608573

Abstract

The shells of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata, are composed of calcite and aragonite and possess remarkable mechanical properties. These shells are formed under the regulation of macromolecules, especially shell matrix proteins (SMPs). Identification of diverse SMPs will lay a foundation for understanding biomineralization process. Here, we identified 72 unique SMPs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of proteins extracted from the shells of P. fucata combined with a draft genome. Of 72 SMPs, 17 SMPs are related to both the prismatic and nacreous layers. Moreover, according to the diverse domains found in the SMPs, we hypothesize that in addition to controlling CaCO3 crystallization and crystal organization, these proteins may potentially regulate the extracellular microenvironment and communicate between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Immunohistological localization techniques identify the SMPs in the mantle, shells and synthetic calcite. Together, these proteomic data increase the repertoires of the shell matrix proteins in P. fucata and suggest that shell formation in P. fucata may involve tight regulation of cellular activities and the extracellular microenvironment.

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