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Elevated concentrations of serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and their associations with circulating markers of cardiovascular diseases in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals.


PMID 26637202

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancers are the major causes of chronic arsenic exposure-related morbidity and mortality. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 (MMP-9) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs and cancers. This study has been designed to evaluate the interactions of arsenic exposure with serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations especially in relation to the circulating biomarkers of CVDs. A total of 373 human subjects, 265 from arsenic-endemic and 108 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. Arsenic concentrations in the specimens were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and serum MMPs were quantified by immunoassay kits. Serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations in arsenic-endemic population were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those in non-endemic population. Both MMPs showed significant positive interactions with drinking water (r s  = 0.208, p < 0.001 for MMP-2; r s  = 0.163, p < 0.01 for MMP-9), hair (r s  = 0.163, p < 0.01 for MMP-2; r s  = 0.173, p < 0.01 for MMP-9) and nail (r s  = 0.160, p < 0.01 for MMP-2; r s  = 0.182, p < 0.001 for MMP-9) arsenic of the study subjects. MMP-2 concentrations were 1.02, 1.03 and 1.05 times, and MMP-9 concentrations were 1.03, 1.06 and 1.07 times greater for 1 unit increase in log-transformed water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations, respectively, after adjusting for covariates (age, sex, BMI, smoking habit and hypertension). Furthermore, both MMPs were increased dose-dependently when the study subjects were split into three (≤10, 10.1-50 and > 50xa0μg/L) groups based on the regulatory upper limit of water arsenic concentration set by WHO and Bangladesh Government. MMPs were also found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with each other. Finally, the concentrations of both MMPs were correlated with several circulating markers related to CVDs. This study showed the significant positive associations and dose-response relationships of arsenic exposure with serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations. This study also showed the interactions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations with the circulating markers of CVDs suggesting the MMP-2 and MMP-9 -mediated mechanism of arsenic-induced CVDs.

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