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Free radical research

N-acetylcysteine with apocynin prevents hyperoxaluria-induced mitochondrial protein perturbations in nephrolithiasis.


PMID 27494339

Abstract

Diminished mitochondrial activities were deemed to play an imperative role in surged oxidative damage perceived in hyperoxaluric renal tissue. Proteomics is particularly valuable to delineate the damaging effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial proteins. The present study was designed to apply large-scale proteomics to describe systematically how mitochondrial proteins/pathways govern the renal damage and calcium oxalate crystal adhesion in hyperoxaluria. Furthermore, the potential beneficial effects of combinatorial therapy with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and apocynin were studied to establish its credibility in the modulation of hyperoxaluria-induced alterations in mitochondrial proteins. In an experimental setup with male Wistar rats, five groups were designed for 9 d. At the end of the experiment, 24-h urine was collected and rats were euthanized. Urinary samples were analyzed for kidney injury marker and creatinine clearance. Transmission electron microscopy revealed distorted renal mitochondria in hyperoxaluria but combinatorial therapy restored the normal mitochondrial architecture. Mitochondria were isolated from renal tissue of experimental rats, and mitochondrial membrane potential was analyzed. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) based comparative proteomic analysis was performed on proteins isolated from renal mitochondria. The results revealed eight differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins in hyperoxaluric rats, which were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. Identified proteins including those involved in important mitochondrial processes, e.g. antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, and electron transport chain. Therapeutic administration of NAC with apocynin significantly expunged hyperoxaluria-induced discrepancy in the renal mitochondrial proteins, bringing them closer to the controls. The results provide insights to further understand the underlying mechanisms in the development of hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis and the therapeutic relevance of the combinatorial therapy.