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Molecular metabolism

The regulator of G-protein signaling RGS16 promotes insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation in rodent and human islets.


PMID 27689011

Abstract

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling regulates insulin secretion and pancreatic β cell-proliferation. While much knowledge has been gained regarding how GPCRs are activated in β cells, less is known about the mechanisms controlling their deactivation. In many cell types, termination of GPCR signaling is controlled by the family of Regulators of G-protein Signaling (RGS). RGS proteins are expressed in most eukaryotic cells and ensure a timely return to the GPCR inactive state upon removal of the stimulus. The aims of this study were i) to determine if RGS16, the most highly enriched RGS protein in β cells, regulates insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation and, if so, ii) to elucidate the mechanisms underlying such effects. Mouse and human islets were infected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing shRNA or cDNA sequences to knock-down or overexpress RGS16, respectively. 60xa0h post-infection, insulin secretion and cAMP levels were measured in static incubations in the presence of glucose and various secretagogues. β-cell proliferation was measured in infected islets after 72xa0h in the presence of 16.7xa0mM glucosexa0±xa0somatostatin and various inhibitors. RGS16 mRNA levels are strongly up-regulated in islets of Langerhans under hyperglycemic conditions inxa0vivo and exxa0vivo. RGS16 overexpression stimulated glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated mouse and human islets while, conversely, insulin secretion was impaired following RGS16 knock-down. Insulin secretion was no longer affected by RGS16 knock-down when islets were pre-treated with pertussis toxin to inactivate Gαi/o proteins, or in the presence of a somatostatin receptor antagonist. RGS16 overexpression increased intracellular cAMP levels, and its effects were blocked by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. Finally, RGS16 overexpression prevented the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation. Our results identify RGS16 as a novel regulator of β-cell function that coordinately controls insulin secretion and proliferation by limiting the tonic inhibitory signal exerted by δ-cell-derived somatostatin in islets.

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C44H57N7O6