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Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry

Distribution of the tryptophan pathway-derived defensive secondary metabolites gramine and benzoxazinones in Poaceae.


PMID 27854190

Abstract

The Poaceae is a large taxonomic group consisting of approximately 12,000 species and is classified into 12 subfamilies. Gramine and benzoxazinones (Bxs), which are biosynthesized from the tryptophan pathway, are well-known defensive secondary metabolites in the Poaceae. We analyzed the presence or absence of garamine and Bxs in 64 species in the Poaceae by LC-MS/MS. We found that Hordeum brachyantherum and Hakonechloa macra accumulated gramine, but the presence of gramine was limited to small groups of species. We also detected Bxs in four species in the Pooideae and six species in the Panicoideae. In particular, four species in the Paniceae tribe in Panicoideae accumulaed Bxs, indicating that this tribe is a center of the Bx distribution. Bxs were absent in the subfamilies other than Pooideae and Panicoideae. These findings provide an overview of biased distribution of gramine and Bxs in Poaceae species.

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