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PloS one

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosiglitazone in Obesity-Impaired Wound Healing Depend on Adipocyte Differentiation.


PMID 27992530

Abstract

Combined diabetes-obesity syndromes severely impair regeneration of acute skin wounds in mouse models. This study assessed the contribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue to exacerbated wound inflammatory conditions. Genetically obese (ob/ob) mice showed an increased expression of positive transcriptional effectors of adipocyte differentiation such as Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and an associated expression of leptin and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)-4, but also CXCL2 in isolated subcutaneous fat. This observation in obese mice is in keeping with differentially elevated levels of KLF-5, PPAR-γ, leptin, FABP-4 and CXCL2 in in vitro-differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Notably, CXCL2 expression restrictively appeared upon cytokine (IL-1β/TNF-α) stimulation only in mature, but not immature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Of importance, the critical regulator of adipocyte maturation, PPAR-γ, was merely expressed in the final phase of in-vitro induced adipocyte differentiation from 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Consistently, the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone suppressed cytokine-induced CXCL2 release from mature adipocytes, but not from early 3T3-L1 adipocyte stages. The inhibitory effect of PPAR-γ activation on CXCL2 release appeared to be a general anti-inflammatory effect in mature adipocytes, as cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2 was simultaneously repressed by rosiglitazone. In accordance with these findings, oral administration of rosiglitazone to wounded obese mice significantly changed subcutaneous adipocyte morphology, reduced wound CXCL2 and Cox-2 expression and improved tissue regeneration. Thus, our data suggest that PPAR-γ might provide a target to suppress inflammatory signals from mature adipocytes, which add to the prolonged wound inflammation observed in diabetes-obesity conditions.

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